The geological formation of Cappadocia is anatural wonder of our world and is the result of two contradicting natural forces. One of these forces is the volcanic outspurts of the region which led to itscoverage with lava, ashes, tuff, and volcanic residue. The second force then is the territorial erosion that started after the volcanic build up was over.
The Taurus Mountains of south Anatolia emerged at the Tertiary stage of the geological development just like the European Alps have been ( 65-2 million years prior to our time ). In this stage of "mountain building", deep crevasses and subsidences occurred in central Anatoila. The molten rock (magma ) at the earth's core emerged to the surface through these crevasses and formed the volcanoes of Erciyes , Develi, Melendiz and Keçiboyduran. These volcanoes formed a volcano chain paralel to the Taurus mountains and strong erruptions followed. The volcanic lava, ashes and tuff moved slowly towards the subsidences of the region and covered the formerly shaped hills and valleys, thus turning the whole region into the huge plateau we see now.